By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with basic learn and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got constantly stumbled on the eu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary creation, in the course of a survey direction on international prehis tory, demonstrated that (for me, not less than) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named device forms than any undergraduate should need to take note. i didn't comprehend a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i'll be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any idea of pur suing examine on Stone Age Europe-that direction was once sufficient for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of innovative human adaptive swap. Iron ically, it all used to be amenable to research utilizing exactly the comparable versions and analytical instruments i finished up spending the higher a part of twenty years utilising within the nice Basin of western North the United States. again then, in fact, few have been wondering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, type, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled lower than I on the activity of studying those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages could be attached as a part of greater neighborhood subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Extra info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 33 is higher. Intensive agriculture characterizes the modern land use in lower elevations, with higher areas largely forested. The Neckar drainage: a rolling, hilly landscape, ranging from 200 to 700 meters in elevation, drained by the Neckar and its numerous tributaries. While the Neckar Valley itself is quite warm and dry in the north, temperatures fall and precipitation rises with increasing elevation both upstream and in the hills. Modern land use is similar to that of the Rhine lowlands, although there are large meadowlands in the higher elevations and extensive forest patches.
80 ~ ~>- C3 Weiden • Ulm •• Munich Metten • • Numberg 70 • Wurzburg Konslanz ti e LL : 60 .. Cl ~ Karlsruhe • :- < 50 Stuttgart • • Freiburg 40 30 0 2 3 4 5 Average March Temperature (Oe) 6 7 8 Figure 4. Correlation of average March temperature and average number of frost days. 40 CHAPTER 3 8 07 arlsruhe-Freibu rg e.... - Q) ~ 6 e! c 4 - - • ~ 1\1 ~0> Metten 3 e! 4 Variance/Mean Figure 5. Correlation of average March temperature and variance/mean ratio of March temperature. 100 • Oberstdorf Ulm 90 • Freudenstadt" • Weiden Munich 80 ~ o WOrzburg.
Work using optimal foraging theory initially ignored risk, but more recently has included it in two ways. First, it has been suggested, based on simulations by Stephens and Charnov (1982), that resource variations have little effect on solutions for the optimal diet, and therefore can often be ignored. Second, models that include resource-sharing among individuals have been used to suggest that even small-scale sharing among a few people can compensate for individual variations in success in food-getting (Winterhalder, 1986).
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim