Agriculture in Developing Countries by Keijiro Otsuka PDF

By Keijiro Otsuka

ISBN-10: 0761936629

ISBN-13: 9780761936626

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The villages were selected such that they have a large proportion of area under flooding depth of 50 cm to 100 cm during the peak of the monsoon season, while some other areas are under shallow flooding depth, so the farmers also practise the single transplantation system. For each of the selected villages, a list of farm households was drawn through a census of all households in the village and based on information on the method of establishment of the Aman crop. Then 40 farmers were selected randomly from the list of those farm households, who practised both the double transplantation and the single transplantation systems for the parcels operated by the farm.

These factors are outside the control of the firm. ui is a non-negative random variable which is independently and identically distributed as N (0, σ u2), that is, the distribution of ui is half normal. | ui | > 0 reflects the technical efficiency relative to the frontier. | ui | = 0 for a firm whose production lies on the frontier and | ui | < 0 for a firm whose production lies below the frontier. According to Battese and Coelli (1995), technical inefficiency effects are defined by: ui = zi δ + wi , i = 1,………, N 34 Md Abdus Samad Azad and Mahabub Hossain where zi is a vector of explanatory variables associated with the technical inefficiency effects and δ is a vector of unknown parameter to be estimated.

The inputs included in the input index were human labour, bullock labour, seed, manure, fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and depreciation. The inputs were aggregated using the factor shares with appropriate weights. Total output, total input, total factor productivity indices were calculated as follows. Total output index (TOI) = (Rjt + Rjt −1 )1 / 2 ⎛ Qj ⎞ TOIt / TOI t − 1 = π j ⎜ t ⎟ ⎝ Qjt −1 ⎠ Total input index (TIIt) = (Si t + SIt −1 )1 / 2 ⎛ Xi ⎞ TIIt / TII t − 1 = πi ⎜ t ⎟ ⎝ Xi t −1 ⎠ Total factor productivity index (TFPI) = ⎛ TOIt ⎞ TFPIt = ⎜ ⎟ ×100 ⎝ TIIt ⎠ Where, Rjt Qjt Sit Xit = the share of output ‘j’ in total revenue = output ‘j’ = the share of input ‘i’ in total input cost = input ‘i’ By specifying TOIt – 1 and TIIt – 1 equal to 100 in the initial year, the above equations provide the total output, total input and total factor productivity indices for the specified period ‘t’.

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Agriculture in Developing Countries by Keijiro Otsuka

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