By Gershon Galil
The heritage of the traditional close to East within the 12th-10th centuries BCE continues to be an unsolved riddle. every now and then the veil is lifted and tiny parts of this problematic puzzle glow in a brand new mild. yet many questions are as but unanswered, and so much info are nonetheless imprecise. however, the wide outlines of this age are quite good agreed by way of such a lot students: the 3 superpowers Egypt, Hatti and Assyria steadily misplaced their carry and their effect within the zone: first the Hittites, simply after 1200 BCE, and some dozens of years later, Egypt and Assyria. Historians mostly concur that once the reign of Tukulti-Ninurta I (1243-1208 BCE), Assyria plunged right into a lengthy decline, progressively wasting its western territories to the Aramaean invaders. (...) The stories provided during this publication contact on various features of human actions (political, social, monetary, and cultural), and seek advice from assorted components of the traditional close to East: from Melid and Hanigalbat within the north to Egypt and Kush within the south and from Assyria and Babylonia within the East to the dominion of Taita and (southern) Philistia within the west. They do even though middle ordinarily at the Bible and the background of historical Israel and its western and jap buddies, in comparison with different historical close to jap cultures. The papers current an intensive vista of views-from biblical and archaeological views and certainly such a lot of them have been written from an inter disciplinary viewpoint.
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Extra resources for Ancient Near East 12th-10th .. AOAT 392 Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Haifa, 2-5 May, 2010
Everything that was devoted and consecrated to the Holy One was excluded from profane, non-priestly usage, such as a field consecrated to YHWH (cf. Lev 27:21) or any other thing (Lev 27:28)! The description in Num 31 is an example of Priestly scribal erudition, which discusses problems of a ‘sacral warfare’ in accordance with the distinct kinds of war given in Deut 20, 21 and 13 and with the demands of sacral purity and expiation in narrative form. The text is therefore often considered an early Midrash.
The narrator has Sennacherib’s messenger say to king Hezekiah (2 Kgs 19:10–11): “Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trust deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria. Behold, thou hast heard what the kings of Assyria have done to all the lands, by destroying them utterly: and shalt thou be delivered? ( שׁ ַמעְתָּ אֵת ָ ִהנֵּה אַתָּ ה ”) ֲאשֶׁר עָשׂוּ ַמ ְלכֵי אַשּׁוּר ְלכָל ָהא ֲָרצוֹת ְל ַהח ֲִרימָם. Here the execution of the ban ritual against conquered countries is described as a basic characteristic of Assyrian policy, and this accusation is repeated in the parallels Isa 37:11 and 2 Chr 32:14!
42 In the context of the original Deuteronomic law, the scribes developed a legal perspective on war, and an impulse for a further development of an international law of war. They formulated a martial law to which Israel was bound by divine commandment with respect to the other nations. In a set of rules this law made it compulsory to offer peace before engaging in acts of war against a fortified city (cf. Deut 20:10–14). The law prohibited the destruction of plantations surrounding a city during siege, in order to protect the civilians from deprivation (Deut 20:19–20).
Ancient Near East 12th-10th .. AOAT 392 Proceedings of the International Conference held at the University of Haifa, 2-5 May, 2010 by Gershon Galil