By Akira Tsuneki, Shigeo Yamada, Ken-ichiro Hisada
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Extra info for Ancient West Asian Civilization: Geoenvironment and Society in the Pre-Islamic Middle East
1977) whereas those of the Turan Plate are of Pliocene age (Aghanabati 2013). Oil exploration began in the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1871 and has continued ever since, resulting in the drilling of more than 21,000 boreholes in various exploration areas, including the Absheron Peninsula, Caspian continental shelf, and Kura Embayment. 6 billion tons; the gas reserve of the largest accumulation is 1 trillion cubic meters and the total gas reserves are estimated to be 2–7 trillion cubic meters. The ancient Iranians considered fire sacred; they called the burning natural gas springs “Eternal Flames,” and constructed fire temples around them.
Hisada Fig. 11 Paleogeographic maps of West Asia (a); Carboniferous period of Paleozoic era, (b); Permian period of Paleozoic era, (c); Jurassic period of Mesozoic era, (d); Cretaceous period of Mesozoic era. After Cavazza et al. (2004) rane extending from Myanmar to Sumatra through Thailand and Malaysia, were aligned to form this continent (Fig. 11b). This strip-shaped continent diverged from Gondwana, which produced a new ocean that separated from the old Tethys. This new ocean is known as the Neotethys, whereas the old ocean is known as the Paleotethys, to distinguish from the former Tethys Ocean.
It contains chert layers several centimeters to ten and several centimeters in thickness composed of siliceous remains such as radiolarian tests, which alternate with layers of mud several millimeters to tens of millimeters thick that do not contain abundant siliceous remains. The accumulation state of organic remains closely resembles siliceous mud, which is deposited in deep ocean floor. The sedimentation rate is estimated to be approximately 1 mm per 1000 years based on radiolarian biostratigraphy.
Ancient West Asian Civilization: Geoenvironment and Society in the Pre-Islamic Middle East by Akira Tsuneki, Shigeo Yamada, Ken-ichiro Hisada