Get Axiomatic Set Theory, Volume 1 (Symposium in Pure PDF

By Jech, T.J; Scott, D.

ISBN-10: 0821802453

ISBN-13: 9780821802458

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The articulation, on the other hand, cannot be regarded as continuous, since the velum has to go up and down for the labial plosive. This combination of discontinuous articulation and perceptual unity can be pictured as: (47) Asymmetry between articulation and perception /–nas/ /+nas/ /–nas/ t u« p a« velum: up down up down Note that (47) does not imply that /+nas/ precedes the second /–nas/: if we see a car standing behind a lamppost, do we see it to the left or to the right of the lamppost? Obviously both.

Previous work has suggested that a nasalization hierarchy is relevant only for defining sets of target segments versus blockers. However, this view is faced with a complementarity problem. First there appear to be no examples of a certain pattern predicted by the hierarchy, one in which all segments including obstruents are nasalized. Second, another system is isolated from the others, one where some obstruents act transparent and all remaining segments are targets. The crosslinguistic study presented here reveals that target and transparent segments pattern together with respect to the nasalization hierarchy: if a class of segments propagates nasal spreading (is targeted or behaves transparent), all higher-ranked classes also propagate nasalization.

10 Overall, it is both articulatory/aerodynamic and acoustic/perceptual factors that contribute to the basis for the nasalization hierarchy, as noted by Cohn (1993a). For example, it is difficult to produce an audibly nasalized fricative because such a sound segment has articulatory/aerodynamic and acoustic/perceptual demands that are hard to satisfy at the same time. The nasal property requires that the segment be produced with a lowered velum, and nasal airflow undermines the build-up of pressure behind the oral constriction needed to produce frication (Cohn 1993a; Ohala & Ohala 1993; Ohala, Solé, & Ying 1998).

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Axiomatic Set Theory, Volume 1 (Symposium in Pure Mathematics Los Angeles July, 1967) by Jech, T.J; Scott, D.

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