By Jeffrey T. Fowler, Mike Chappell
It is usually forgotten that the German Wehrmacht of 1939-45 relied seriously upon horses. not just was once nearly all of military shipping and lots more and plenty of the artillery depending on draught horse groups; the Germans additionally stored a horse-mounted cavalry department within the box until eventually the top of 1941. After retreating it, they found a necessity to restore and drastically extend their cavalry devices in 1943-45. the military and Waffen-SS cavalry proved their worthy at the Russian entrance, supported through different Axis cavalry contingents - Romanian, Hungarian, Italian, and in the community recruited. during this booklet an skilled horseman describes that final iteration of horse-soldiers in a textual content supported by way of tables, pictures, and meticulous color plates.
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The installation is comprehensive and complicated. The vast and rapid changes in pressure require correct handling of these modern boiler systems by highly qualified personnel who understand the interrelatedness of steam pressure, feedwater supply, superheater temperatures and airflow and have the practical experience enabling them to identify and rectify problems as and when they arise. The prescribed staffing level for each boiler room is one NCO and four stokers. Because the feedwater regulator is so inaccessible, two stokers have to be at the central stand at all times.
The destroyer’s role was generally conceived to be escort, patrol and scouting duties in accordance with the description ‘workhorses of the Fleet’. In November 1939 offensive minelaying operations began off the British coast. These required a high state of readiness of ship and machinery, for a relatively high speed had to be maintained despite the heavy cargo of mines, and this could only be guaranteed if the engine plant worked as it should. That this was achieved was attributable to a marked degree to the training of the NCOs and stokers and the preparedness of chief engineers to cut corners, knowing they could rely on the men under them.
Q Heating oil pump. R Turbine oil pump. S Main cooling pump. T Turbo-generator. U Steam suppressor. V Auxiliary condenser. W Auxiliary boiler. X Turbine control stand. (From files of F. Schichau AG, Elbing 1944: Bröckow, Geschichte des deutschen Marine-Ingenieur-Korps) The diesel motor needs none of this regulating equipment and therefore demands fewer personnel. It is also instantly ready. A diesel ship has great range, but it requires fuel of a better quality fuel, which is more expensive. In the period between 1928 and 1935 MAN Augsburg built a light, double-acting, two-stroke diesel motor to German Navy specifications which had proved satisfactory aboard ship after initial teething problems, and it was the exaggeration of these problems by the steam lobby that led to the abandonment of diesel drive for large warships in favour of high-pressure/hot-steam for the critical rebuilding period from 1935 onwards.
Axis Cavalry in World War II by Jeffrey T. Fowler, Mike Chappell