By Pina Fratamico
Biofilms within the nutrition and beverage industries may possibly shape whilst micro organism connect to and colonise the surfaces of meals dealing with and processing apparatus and nutrients items themselves. Human pathogens in biofilms should be tougher to take away than loose microorganisms and hence may possibly pose a extra major nutrients safeguard probability. the outlet chapters during this crucial e-book reflect on basic features reminiscent of the ecology and features of biofilms in nutrients and beverage processing environments and strategies for his or her detection. half then studies biofilm formation by way of varied microorganisms. half 3 specializes in the numerous problems with biofilm prevention and removing. Chapters on specific nutrients sectors entire the gathering.
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Extra resources for Biofilms in the food and beverage industries
The outer layer of EPS can dry out under water-deficient conditions and form a hard, protective layer, preventing dehydration of the inner cells (Sutherland, 2001a). Bereswill and Geider (1997) showed that the production of acidic EPS (amylovoran) by Erwinia amylovora is linked to the virulence of this strain. A strain that was incapable of producing amylovoran was avirulent on its host plants (Bereswill and Geider, 1997). Several studies concluded that mucoid P. , 2001). This ‘mucoid exopolysaccharide’ (MEP) is therefore seen as a virulence factor in cystic fibrosis infections (Gilligan, 1991).
The physicochemical properties of the surface may also exert a strong influence on the rate an extent of attachment. com/ viewarticle/441355_4). , 2001). Other studies demonstrated that algC up regulation occurs within minutes of attachment to a surface in a flow cell system. Gene encoding for enzymes involved in glycolysis or fermentation such as phosphoglycerate mutase, triosephosphate isomerase and alcohol dehydrogenase are up regulated in biofilm forming by Staphylococcus aureus. , 2003a,b).
Certain EPS components can, however, be taken up from the surrounding environment. , 1998; Jonas and Farah, 1998) are known, but it is not yet clear whether extacellular DNA is excreted actively or passively (Lorenz and Wackernagel, 1994). Some important cellular components, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, can be released from the outer membrane by surface blebbing. This process takes place during the normal growth phase of the cells and its occurrence is possible due to metabolic turnover processes.
Biofilms in the food and beverage industries by Pina Fratamico