By Jack Isbester
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Additional info for Bulk Carrier Practice: A Practical Guide
Sub-chartering: It is quite common for a vessel to be hired by a charterer from the owner under one charterparty (head charter) and then sub-chartered by the first charterer to a sub-charterer under a second charterparty (sub-charter). There may be one or more sub-charters and these may be time or voyage charters, although generally the last charter in the chain will be a voyage charter. In this situation the first (and any other intermediate) charterer becomes known as the disponent owner, and is responsible to the sub-charterer for the owner's obligations.
Without a copy of the charterparty, the master is unable to be fully aware of his rights and responsibilities and to ensure that the orders he is given are valid. Sometimes even the owners sign a charterparty without fully appreciating the meaning of all the clauses. An alert master may spot discrepancies between the charterparty and the voyage instructions from owners or charterers. The master will also receive from his owners and charterers extensive voyage orders, transmitted by facsimile, telex or mail, which contain such extracts of the charterparty as each party considers it is necessary for him to know.
However, if such notice is given and the stevedore fails to compensate for the damage, the shipowner will claim against the charterer direct. If notice of damage is not given to the stevedore, the charterer may escape his liabilities. If the damage caused by the stevedore is not discovered until later, because it is not apparent, the shipowner will claim against the charterer. Voyage charters: A voyage charterparty is a contract to hire the ship for the carriage of specified goods on a defined voyage or voyages between specified ports or regions, for an agreed payment (freight) which may depend upon the quantity of cargo loaded or carried (for example, US$12 per tonne) or which may be lumpsum (for example, US$900,000), a gross sum paid for the use of the whole or part of a ship.
Bulk Carrier Practice: A Practical Guide by Jack Isbester