By Stringfield N., White R., McKee S.
Cisco exhibit Forwarding knowing and troubleshooting CEF in Cisco routers and switches Nakia Stringfield, CCIER No. 13451Russ White, CCIE No. 2635Stacia McKee How does a router change a packet? what's the distinction among routing a packet, switching a body, and packet switching? what's the CiscoR exhibit Forwarding (CEF) function observed in Cisco documentation and in most cases present in Cisco IOSR instructions? CEF is a basic time period that describes the mechanism in which Cisco routers and CatalystR switches packet-switch (route) frames. CEF is located in just about all Cisco routers and Catalyst switches, and realizing how CEF operates can enhance the functionality, scalability, and potency of your community. Cisco exhibit Forwarding demystifies the interior workings of Cisco routers and switches, making it more straightforward so you might optimize functionality and troubleshoot concerns that come up in Cisco community environments. This e-book addresses universal misconceptions approximately CEF and packet switching throughout a variety of structures, assisting you to enhance your troubleshooting talents for CEF- and non-CEF-related difficulties. the 1st a part of the e-book presents an outline of packet-switching architectures and CEF operation and complicated features.It additionally covers the improved CEF constitution and normal troubleshooting. the second one a part of the publication presents case reviews that target the typical subject matters which were troublesome for patrons and people assisting Cisco networks. jam-packed with functional examples and configurations, this ebook attracts on years of expertise that will help you retain your Cisco networks working successfully. Nakia Stringfield, CCIER No. 13451, is a community consulting engineer for complicated providers at Cisco, aiding most sensible monetary clients with community layout and using most sensible practices. She was once previously a senior customer service engineer for the Routing Protocols Technical suggestions middle (TAC) staff troubleshooting matters relating to CEF and routing protocols. Nakia has been with Cisco for greater than six years, formerly serving as a technical chief for the structure TAC group. Russ White, CCIE No. 2635, is a precept Engineer within the Routing Protocol layout and structure group at Cisco. he's a member of the IETF Routing quarter Directorate, co-chair of the Routing Protocols safety operating workforce within the IETF, a typical speaker at Cisco Networkers, a member of the CCIE content material Advisory team, and the coauthor of six different books approximately routing and routing protocols, together with optimum Routing layout from Cisco Press. Russ essentially works within the improvement of recent positive aspects and layout architectures for routing protocols. Stacia McKee is a customer service engineer and technical chief of the Routing Protocols Technical assistance heart (TAC) group. This workforce specializes in offering post-sales aid of IP routing protocols, MPLS, QoS, IP multicast, and plenty of different Layer three applied sciences. Stacia has been with Cisco for greater than six years, formerly serving as a technical chief of the structure TAC workforce and a member of the WAN/Access TAC group. research the major positive aspects of packet-switching architecturesUnderstand the fundamentals of the CEF structure and operationExamine the improved CEF constitution, which improves scalabilityLearn the best way to troubleshoot in software-switching environmentsUnderstand the impression of CEF on a Cisco Catalyst 6500 manager 720Configure and troubleshoot load sharing with CEFEvaluate the influence of CEF in an MPLS VPN environmentReview CEF layout issues that effect scalability
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Example 2-23. 255/32 Next Hop drop receive attached receive receive receive attached receive receive receive drop receive receive Interface Null0 (default route handler Serial2/0 Ethernet0/0 Chapter 3. CEF Enhanced Scalability This chapter covers the following topics: • Fundamental changes to CEF for CCSR • Changes to show commands • New show ip cef commands • New show cef commands • CEF event logger • CEF consistency checker • New CEF processes Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is the most widely used forwarding mechanism on IP networks, so why change what works?
Out-of-Order Packets and Fancy Queuing These last three steps might seem odd when you first read them—Why would the router check the output queue for packets before deciding whether to transfer the packet to the transmit ring? To prevent out-of-order packets and to make fancy queuing mechanisms, such as weighted fair queuing (WFQ), do their job. Let's start with out-of-order packet prevention. Assume that a single packet is received and is placed in the input queue of some process for later processing.
Example 2-14. 252 Router#show adjacency internal Protocol Interface IP Serial2/0 Address point2point(5) 0 packets, 0 bytes 0F000800 CEF expires: 00:02:39 refresh: 00:00:39 Epoch: 0 Fast adjacency disabled IP redirect enabled IP mtu 1500 (0x0) Fixup disabled Adjacency pointer 0x1BC6D48, refCount 5 Connection Id 0x000000 Bucket 10 The protocol type (in this case IP), the Layer 2 header rewrite string, the source of the adjacency entry, and the outbound interface are all included in an adjacency entry.
Cisco Express Forwarding by Stringfield N., White R., McKee S.