By Manfred Pienemann
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Table of Contents:
Introduction: find out how to Use the publication 1
The talking part 3
Description of initiatives 5
Independent job: conversing, own choice 6
Independent activity: Paired selection activity 10
Integrated job: Reading/Listening/Speaking (Campus-based) 14
Integrated job: Listening/Reading/Speaking (Academic subject) 22
Integrated activity: Listening/Speaking (Campus-based) 29
Integrated activity: Listening/Speaking (Academic subject) 35
Phrases and Vocabulary for the talking part with regards to ability and objective 41
Speaking ability improvement 51
Websites for bettering Listening talents 51
The Writing part 53
Description of initiatives 55
Independent activity 55
Integrated job 61
Phrases and Vocabulary for the Writing part near to ability and function 73
Writing ability improvement 83
Suggestions for the self sustaining activity 83
Suggestions for the built-in activity 85
Vocabulary improvement 87
Summarizing perform 89
Increasing Vocabulary via interpreting 89
Increasing Vocabulary with the AcademicWord Lists 89
Grammar Pretest 97
Grammar principles and workouts 101
Grammar Posttest 147
Punctuation Pretest 155
Punctuation ideas 157
Punctuation Posttest 162
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Additional info for Cross-Linguistic Aspects of Processability Theory (Studies in Biligualism)
In fact, the two explanatory devices, UG and strategies, are on quite a different scale and address different aspects of the acquisition process. e. the ‘logical problem’) and has been far less successful in accounting for the ‘developmental problem’ (cf. Section 1) for which a transition theory is needed. I made the point above that Processability Theory is designed exclusively to address the developmental problem, and I will show that it accounts for development, not only in the L2 context but also for L1 and that it can interact with other theory modules which do address the logical problem.
In effect, changing the developmental path would mean that all developmental steps up to the node that gives access to the alternative path would have to be cancelled. As a result, a great deal of structural information would be lost in such a move. Many physical processes of development are indeed irreversible, as the example of developmentally misformed organisms shows. The key explanatory point that can be derived from the concept of generative entrenchment for language acquisition is that a massive computational saving can be made if structural decisions do not have to be revised in the developmental process every time a structural change occurs.
Present) | | Person = 3 Person = 3 NUM = SG NUM = SG In other words, SV-agreement marking requires the presence of the Sprocedure and is therefore located at level 5 of the hierarchy. In other words, the observed sequence of acquisition (lexical before phrasal before inter-phrasal morphemes) is predicted by the processability of the morphological structures under investigation. Let us now look at how the syntactic phenomena contained in the ESL processability hierarchy can be accounted for by LFG and how this treatment justifies the position of the individual rules in the hierarchy.
Cross-Linguistic Aspects of Processability Theory (Studies in Biligualism) by Manfred Pienemann