By N. Housley
This number of essays via ecu and American students addresses the altering nature and allure of crusading through the interval which prolonged from the conflict of Nicopolis in 1396 to the conflict of Mohács in 1526. members concentrate on key features of the topic. One is advancements within the crusading message and the language during which it used to be framed. those have been led to partially via the looks of recent enemies, especially the Ottoman Turks, and in part via moving spiritual values and leading edge currents of suggestion inside of Catholic Europe. the opposite point is the wide variety of responses which the papacy's repeated calls to holy conflict encountered in a Christian group which used to be more and more heterogeneous in personality. This assortment represents a considerable contribution to the learn of the Later Crusades and of Renaissance Europe.
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Additional info for Crusading in the Fifteenth Century: Message and Impact
A good place to begin answering this question is a consideration of a few works written before he became pope. Responses to the fall of Constantinople offer examples of some of his most passionate rhetoric. At this point, Aeneas was bishop of Trieste and Siena, but still serving as secretary to Frederick III. Deeply disturbed by the conquest of the Byzantine capital, Aeneas wrote letters to Nicholas V and Nicholas of Cusa in which he expresses righteous indignation at the abuses of fellow Christians and their shrines, and calls for action in defence of the Christian faith and Europe.
Yet it was the appearance of just this sort of informed, critical empiricism which Aeneas and the humanists in his circle strove to cultivate. They investigated the origins of the Turks in a way that seemed historically credible and beyond methodological reproach, with a wealth of detail and authoritative citations, while all the while darkly hinting at the true, apocalyptic significance of their existence. 30 Crusading in the Fifteenth Century Humanist crusade propagandists never lost sight of the fundamentally religious nature of the crusade nor the religious identity of the enemy it sought to defeat.
The sincerity of Aeneas’s commitment to the cause has sometimes been called into doubt. It could be seen as a cynical ploy, as the former conciliarist leapt adroitly to the defence of Italian Humanists and the Problem of the Crusade 25 a quintessentially papal project. But disappointment with Frederick’s vacillation at the diets of 1454–55 may well have driven Aeneas to seek advancement in the Church under the militant Calixtus III (1455–58). 29 Over the course of the 1450s, the crusade came increasingly to be seen as a peculiarly Roman venture.
Crusading in the Fifteenth Century: Message and Impact by N. Housley