By Kenneth E. Avis, Carmen M. Wagner
content material: advent --
ideas of large-scale cryopreservation of cells, microorganisms, protein recommendations and organic items --
Large-scale cryopreservation: method improvement for freezing and thawing of enormous volumes of phone suspensions, protein options, and organic items --
technique selectino concerns for long term upkeep of mammalian cells and microorganisms --
Cryopreservation of mammalian mobile cultures --
Freeze-drying of human dwell virus vaccines --
The layout and use of thermal shipping containers.
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Extra resources for Cryopreservation : applications in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology
The small channels stabilized at low pH, and the larger channels were detected at high pH. 4. Since the pH in a liquid phase during freezing may be changing, the porin's permeability of microorganisms involved may also change. Because there is a cryoconcentration effect during freezing and the ionic strength outside the cell increases, these findings may aid in interpretation of cell molecular transport through the porins. Recently, Jap and Walian (1996) pub lished an updated review on the structure and functional mecha nism of porins.
1995). During the cooling and freezing processes, the fluidity limit of the membrane may be reached, and the water diffusion through the membrane may cease. The water transport may subsequently continue via the mem brane transport proteins. The bacterial cell walls carry a strong negative charge, and this charge may play an important role in interactions with ions, charged molecules, and surfaces. The hydrophobic effect is also thought to play an important role in bacterial interactions with the outside environment (Doyle and Rosenberg 1990).
Thom and Matthes (1988) reported on deformation of cell membranes at low temperatures. During freezing, the cells remained between ice crystals and were exposed to a mechanical shear and bending in addition to chemical effects (due to cryoconcentration of solutes). Deform ability of cell membranes during freezing can be an essential factor in withstanding the freezing process without a mechanical breakdown. Thom (1988) reported on a deformability of cell membranes using erythrocytes. At about 42 Cryop reservation -20° C, the deformability of these cells reached zero, and the mem brane became brittle.
Cryopreservation : applications in pharmaceuticals and biotechnology by Kenneth E. Avis, Carmen M. Wagner